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References Of All Articles

Linseed Oil - Healthy Effects By Unsaturated fatty Acids

  1. FAOSTAT. Statistical data of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2014)
  2. Brenda C Davis, Penny M Kris-Etherton: Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications; American Society for Clinical Nutrition; Am J Clin Nutr September 2003; vol. 78 no. 3 640S-646S
  3. William E Connor: Importance of n?3 fatty acids in health and disease; American Society for Clinical Nutrition; Am J Clin Nutr January 2000; vol. 71 no. 1 171S-175S
  4. Barceló-Coblijn G, Murphy EJ, Othman R, Moghadasian MH, Kashour T, Friel JK.: Flaxseed oil and fish-oil capsule consumption alters human red blood cell n-3 fatty acid composition: a multiple-dosing trial comparing 2 sources of n-3 fatty acid.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Sep;88(3):801-9.; PMID: 18779299
  5. Hennebelle M, Courchesne-Loyer A, St-Pierre V, Vandenberghe C, Castellano CA, Fortier M, Tessier D, Cunnane SC.: Preliminary evaluation of a differential effect of an α-linolenate-rich supplement on ketogenesis and plasma ω-3 fatty acids in young and older adults.; Nutrition. 2016 Apr 8. pii: S0899-9007(16)30040-5. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2016.03.025. [Epub ahead of print]; PMID: 27261061
  6. Skulas-Ray AC.: Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammation: a perspective on the challenges of evaluating efficacy in clinical research.; Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2015 Jan-Mar;116-117:104-11. doi: 10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2015.02.001. Epub 2015 Feb 16.; PMID: 25698680
  7. Prasad K.: Flaxseed and cardiovascular health.; J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2009 Nov;54(5):369-77. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e3181af04e5.; PMID: 19568181
  8. Barden AE, Croft KD, Durand T, Guy A, Mueller MJ, Mori TA.: Flaxseed oil supplementation increases plasma F1-phytoprostanes in healthy men.; J Nutr. 2009 Oct;139(10):1890-5. doi: 10.3945/jn.109.108316. Epub 2009 Aug 12.; PMID: 19675101
  9. Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Valentina Mariani, Hubertus Hochrein, Kathrin Karg, Hermann Wagner, Johannes Ring, Martin J. Mueller, Thilo Jakob, Heidrun Behrendt: Pollen-associated phytoprostanes inhibit dendritic cell interleukin-12 production and augment T helper type 2 cell polarization; J Exp Med. 2005 Feb 21; 201(4): 627–636.; doi: 10.1084/jem.20041065; PMCID: PMC2213058
  10. Ramos CI, Andrade de Lima AF, Grilli DG, Cuppari L.: The short-term effects of olive oil and flaxseed oil for the treatment of constipation in hemodialysis patients.; J Ren Nutr. 2015 Jan;25(1):50-6. doi: 10.1053/j.jrn.2014.07.009. Epub 2014 Sep 17.; PMID: 25238699
  11. Truan JS, Chen JM, Thompson LU.: Flaxseed oil reduces the growth of human breast tumors (MCF-7) at high levels of circulating estrogen.; Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 Oct;54(10):1414-21. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200900521.; PMID: 20425756
  12. Mason JK, Fu M, Chen J, Thompson LU.: Flaxseed oil enhances the effectiveness of trastuzumab in reducing the growth of HER2-overexpressing human breast tumors (BT-474).; J Nutr Biochem. 2015 Jan;26(1):16-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2014.08.001. Epub 2014 Sep 22.; PMID: 25441844
  13. Wahid Herchia, Saleh Sawalhab, David Arráez-Románb, Sadok Boukhchinaa, Antonio Segura-Carreterob, Habib Kallela, Alberto Fernández-Gutierrezb: Determination of phenolic and other polar compounds in flaxseed oil using liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry; Food Chemistry Volume 126, Issue 1, 1 May 2011, Pages 332–338; doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.10.070
  14. Webb AL, McCullough ML.: Dietary lignans: potential role in cancer prevention.; Nutr Cancer. 2005;51(2):117-31.; PMID: 15860433
  15. ALEKSANDER SIGER, MALGORZATA NOGALA-KALUCKA, ELEONORA LAMPART-SZCZAPA: THE CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN COLD-PRESSED PLANT OILS; Journal of Food Lipids, Volume 15, Issue 2, pages 137–149, May 2008, DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4522.2007.00107.x
  16. Kawakami Y, Yamanaka-Okumura H, Naniwa-Kuroki Y, Sakuma M, Taketani Y, Takeda E.: Flaxseed oil intake reduces serum small dense low-density lipoprotein concentrations in Japanese men: a randomized, double blind, crossover study.; Nutr J. 2015 Apr 21;14:39. doi: 10.1186/s12937-015-0023-2.; PMID: 25896182
  17. Hoogeveen RC, Gaubatz JW, Sun W, Dodge RC, Crosby JR, Jiang J, Couper D, Virani SS, Kathiresan S, Boerwinkle E, Ballantyne CM.: Small dense low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations predict risk for coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study.; Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014 May;34(5):1069-77.; doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.303284. Epub 2014 Feb 20.; PMID: 24558110
  18. Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD: Flaxseed oil; University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC); accessed on October 14, 2015
  19. Avelino AP, Oliveira GM, Ferreira CC, Luiz RR, Rosa G.: Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults.; Clin Interv Aging. 2015 Oct 22;10:1679-85. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S75538. eCollection 2015.; PMID: 26543357
  20. De Spirt S, Stahl W, Tronnier H, Sies H, Bejot M, Maurette JM, Heinrich U.: Intervention with flaxseed and borage oil supplements modulates skin condition in women.; Br J Nutr. 2009 Feb;101(3):440-5. doi: 10.1017/S0007114508020321. Epub 2008 Sep 2.; PMID: 18761778
  21. Neukam K, De Spirt S, Stahl W, Bejot M, Maurette JM, Tronnier H, Heinrich U.: Supplementation of flaxseed oil diminishes skin sensitivity and improves skin barrier function and condition.; Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2011;24(2):67-74. doi: 10.1159/000321442. Epub 2010 Nov 18.; PMID: 21088453
  22. Anna Lewinska, Jacek Zebrowski, Magdalena Duda, Anna Gorka, Maciej Wnuk: Fatty Acid Profile and Biological Activities of Linseed and Rapeseed Oils; Molecules 2015, 20(12), 22872-22880; doi:10.3390/molecules201219887
  23. Ursoniu S, Sahebkar A, Andrica F, Serban C, Banach M; Lipid and Blood Pressure Meta-analysis Collaboration (LBPMC) Group.: Effects of flaxseed supplements on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trial.; Clin Nutr. 2015 May 29. pii: S0261-5614(15)00144-2. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2015.05.012.; PMID: 26071633
  24. Barre DE, Mizier-Barre KA, Griscti O, Hafez K.: High dose flaxseed oil supplementation may affect fasting blood serum glucose management in human type 2 diabetics.; J Oleo Sci. 2008;57(5):269-73.; PMID: 18391475
  25. WebMD, LLC: FLAXSEED OIL, accessed on October 14, 2015
  26. Prasad K.: Flaxseed and cardiovascular health.; J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2009 Nov;54(5):369-77. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e3181af04e5.; PMID: 19568181
  27. Mirfatahi M, Tabibi H, Nasrollahi A, Hedayati M, Taghizadeh M.: Effect of flaxseed oil on serum systemic and vascular inflammation markers and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial.; Int Urol Nephrol. 2016 Apr 26. [Epub ahead of print]; PMID: 27115157
  28. Therapeutic Research Center: Flaxseed oil, accessed on October 14, 2015
  29. University of Montreal: Pregnant Women Consuming Flaxseed Oil Have High Risk Of Premature Birth
  30. Prasad K.: Flaxseed and cardiovascular health.; J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2009 Nov;54(5):369-77.; doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e3181af04e5.; PMID: 19568181
  31. M. NYKTER, H-R. KYMÄLÄINEN, F. GATES: Quality characteristics of edible linseed oil; Agricultural and Food Science Vol 15, Nro 4 (2006) > NYKTER; ISSN 1795-1895
  32. Tańska M, Roszkowska B, Skrajda M, Dąbrowski G.: Commercial Cold Pressed Flaxseed Oils Quality and Oxidative Stability at the Beginning and the End of Their Shelf Life.; J Oleo Sci. 2016 Feb 1;65(2):111-21. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess15243. Epub 2016 Jan 15.
  33. Tańska M, Roszkowska B, Skrajda M, Dąbrowski G.: Commercial Cold Pressed Flaxseed Oils Quality and Oxidative Stability at the Beginning and the End of Their Shelf Life.; J Oleo Sci. 2016 Feb 1;65(2):111-21. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess15243. Epub 2016 Jan 15.

Vitamins For Life

  1. Amir Sharabi, Eytan Cohen, Jaqueline Sulkes, Moshe Garty: Replacement therapy for vitamin B12 deficiency: comparison between the sublingual and oral route; Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Dec; 56(6): 635–638.; doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01907.x; PMCID: PMC1884303
  2. Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University: Biotin; abgerufen am 15.10.2015
  3. Bandeira F, Griz L, Dreyer P, Eufrazino C, Bandeira C, Freese E.: Vitamin D deficiency: A global perspective.; Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2006 Aug;50(4):640-6.; PMID: 17117289

Chia Seeds - Power Packs For Your Health

  1. Loreto A. Muñoz, Angel Cobos, Olga Diaz & José Miguel Aguiler: Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica): An Ancient Grain and a New Functional Food; Food Reviews International Volume 29, Issue 4, 2013; DOI: 10.1080/87559129.2013.818014
  2. Jin F, Nieman DC, Sha W, Xie G, Qiu Y, Jia W.: Supplementation of milled chia seeds increases plasma ALA and EPA in postmenopausal women.; Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2012 Jun;67(2):105-10.; doi: 10.1007/s11130-012-0286-0.
  3. Nieman DC, Gillitt N, Jin F, Henson DA, Kennerly K, Shanely RA, Ore B, Su M, Schwartz S.: Chia seed supplementation and disease risk factors in overweight women: a metabolomics investigation.; J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Jul;18(7):700-8.; doi: 10.1089/acm.2011.0443.
  4. Frits A. J. Muskiet, M. Rebecca Fokkema, Anne Schaafsma, E. Rudy Boersma Michael A. Crawford: Is Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Essential? Lessons from DHA Status Regulation, Our Ancient Diet, Epidemiology and Randomized Controlled Trials; J. Nutr. January 1, 2004; vol. 134 no. 1 183-186
  5. María R. Sandoval-Oliveros and Octavio Paredes-López: Isolation and Characterization of Proteins from Chia Seeds (Salvia hispanica L.); J. Agric. Food Chem., 2013, 61 (1), pp 193–201; DOI: 10.1021/jf3034978
  6. Ulbricht C, Chao W, Nummy K, Rusie E, Tanguay-Colucci S, Iannuzzi CM, Plammoottil JB, Varghese M, Weissner W.: Chia (Salvia hispanica): a systematic review by the natural standard research collaboration.; Rev Recent Clin Trials. 2009 Sep;4(3):168-74.
  7. Zalalem Eshetu Bekalu: Salvia hispanica seed phytases
  8. Martínez-Cruz O, Paredes-López O.: Phytochemical profile and nutraceutical potential of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) by ultra high performance liquid chromatography.; J Chromatogr A. 2014 Jun 13;1346:43-8.; doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2014.04.007. Epub 2014 Apr 13.
  9. M. Silvia Taga, E. E. Miller, D. E. Pratt: Chia seeds as a source of natural lipid antioxidants; Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society; May 1984, Volume 61, Issue 5, pp 928-931
  10. Illian TG, Casey JC, Bishop PA.: Omega 3 Chia seed loading as a means of carbohydrate loading.; J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Jan;25(1):61-5.; doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181fef85c.
  11. Vázquez-Ovando Alfredo, Rosado-Rubio Gabriel, Chel-Guerrero Luis, Betancur-Ancona David: Physicochemical properties of a fibrous fraction from chia (Salvia hispanica L.); LWT - Food Science and Technology; Volume 42, Issue 1, 2009, Pages 168–173; doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2008.05.012
  12. Armstrong D (2004) Application for approval of whole chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed and ground whole seed as novel food ingredient. Northern Ireland, R
  13. Armstrong D (2004) Application for approval of whole chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed and ground whole seed as novel food ingredient. Northern Ireland, R
  14. Joanne Slavin: Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits; Nutrients. 2013 Apr; 5(4): 1417–1435.; Published online 2013 Apr 22. doi: 10.3390/nu5041417; PMCID: PMC3705355
  15. Vázquez-Ovando Alfredo, Rosado-Rubio Gabriel, Chel-Guerrero Luis, Betancur-Ancona David: Physicochemical properties of a fibrous fraction from chia (Salvia hispanica L.); LWT - Food Science and Technology; Volume 42, Issue 1, 2009, Pages 168–173; doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2008.05.012
  16. Gayathri Balakrishnan: Influence of Chia Seeds on Satiety
  17. Nieman DC, Cayea EJ, Austin MD, Henson DA, McAnulty SR, Jin F.: Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults.; Nutr Res. 2009 Jun;29(6):414-8.; doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2009.05.011.
  18. Vuksan V, Jenkins AL, Dias AG, Lee AS, Jovanovski E, Rogovik AL, Hanna A.: Reduction in postprandial glucose excursion and prolongation of satiety: possible explanation of the long-term effects of whole grain Salba (Salvia Hispanica L.).; Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Apr;64(4):436-8.; doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2009.159. Epub 2010 Jan 20.
  19. Ho H, Lee AS, Jovanovski E, Jenkins AL, Desouza R, Vuksan V.: Effect of whole and ground Salba seeds (Salvia Hispanica L.) on postprandial glycemia in healthy volunteers: a randomized controlled, dose-response trial.; Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jul;67(7):786-8.; doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2013.103. Epub 2013 Jun 19.
  20. Vuksan V, Whitham D, Sievenpiper JL, Jenkins AL, Rogovik AL, Bazinet RP, Vidgen E, Hanna A.: Supplementation of conventional therapy with the novel grain Salba (Salvia hispanica L.) improves major and emerging cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized controlled trial.; Diabetes Care. 2007 Nov;30(11):2804-10. Epub 2007 Aug 8.
  21. Toscano LT, da Silva CS, Toscano LT, de Almeida AE, Santos Ada C, Silva AS.: Chia flour supplementation reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects.; Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2014 Dec;69(4):392-8.; doi: 10.1007/s11130-014-0452-7.
  22. Submitted by Arsalan Yunus Research & Development 12/4/2012 Request for Scientific Evaluation of Substantial Equivalence for the approval and extended use of Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) from The Chia Company
  23. Norlaily Mohd Ali, Swee Keong Yeap, Wan Yong Ho, Boon Kee Beh, Sheau Wei Tan, and Soon Guan Tan: The Promising Future of Chia, Salvia hispanica L.; Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology; Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 171956, 9 pages; http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/171956
  24. García Jiménez S, Pastor Vargas C, de las Heras M, Sanz Maroto A, Vivanco F, Sastre J.: Allergen characterization of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica), a new allergenic food.; J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2015;25(1):55-6.
  25. Borneo R, Aguirre A, León AE.: Chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel can be used as egg or oil replacer in cake formulations.; J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Jun;110(6):946-9.; doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2010.03.011.

Excess Protein

  1. Malcolm Watford: Protein; doi: 10.3945/an.110.000091; Adv Nutr January 2011 Adv Nutr vol. 2: 62-63, 2011
  2. Wu G.: Dietary protein intake and human health.; Food Funct. 2016 Mar 16;7(3):1251-65. doi: 10.1039/c5fo01530h.; First published online 11 Jan 2016
  3. Antonio J, Peacock CA, Ellerbroek A, Fromhoff B, Silver T.: The effects of consuming a high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained individuals.; J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 May 12;11:19. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-11-19. eCollection 2014.; PMID: 24834017
  4. Anya Ellerbroek, Tobin Silver, Steve Orris, Max Scheiner, Adriana Gonzalez, Corey A Peacock: A high protein diet (3.4 g/kg/d) combined with a heavy resistance training program improves body composition in healthy trained men and women – a follow-up investigation; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition201512:39; DOI: 10.1186/s12970-015-0100-0; Published: 20 October 2015
  5. Kevin D. Tiptona: Efficacy and consequences of very-high-protein diets for athletes and exercisers; Proceedings of the Nutrition Society / Volume 70 / Issue 02 / Mai 2011, pp 205-214; Symposium 2: Exercise and protein nutrition; The Summer Meeting of the Nutrition Society hosted by the Scottish Section, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh.28 June–1 July 2010, Conference on ‘Nutrition and health: cell to community’; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665111000024 (About DOI), Published online: März 2011
  6. Wu G.: Dietary protein intake and human health.; Food Funct. 2016 Mar 16;7(3):1251-65. doi: 10.1039/c5fo01530h.; First published online 11 Jan 2016
  7. Bonjour JP.: Protein intake and bone health.; Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2011 Mar;81(2-3):134-42. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000063.; PMID: 22139564
  8. William F Martin, Lawrence E Armstrong, Nancy R Rodriguez: Dietary protein intake and renal function; Nutr Metab (Lond). 2005; 2: 25.; Published online 2005 Sep 20. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-2-25; PMCID: PMC1262767
  9. night EL, Stampfer MJ, Hankinson SE, Spiegelman D, Curhan GC.: The impact of protein intake on renal function decline in women with normal renal function or mild renal insufficiency.; Ann Intern Med. 2003 Mar 18;138(6):460-7.; PMID: 12639078
  10. Wu G.: Dietary protein intake and human health.; Food Funct. 2016 Mar 16;7(3):1251-65. doi: 10.1039/c5fo01530h.; First published online 11 Jan 2016
  11. Poortmans JR, Dellalieux O.: Do regular high protein diets have potential health risks on kidney function in athletes?; KInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000 Mar;10(1):28-38.; PMID: 10722779
  12. William F Martin, Lawrence E Armstrong, Nancy R Rodriguez: Dietary protein intake and renal function; Nutr Metab (Lond). 2005; 2: 25.; Published online 2005 Sep 20. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-2-25; PMCID: PMC1262767
  13. Tipton KD.: Efficacy and consequences of very-high-protein diets for athletes and exercisers.; Proc Nutr Soc. 2011 May;70(2):205-14. doi: 10.1017/S0029665111000024. Epub 2011 Mar 7.; PMID: 21375795

Flax Seed - Small Seeds With Healthy Benefits

  1. Kajla P, Sharma A, Sood DR.: Flaxseed-a potential functional food source.; J Food Sci Technol. 2015 Apr;52(4):1857-71.; doi: 10.1007/s13197-014-1293-y. Epub 2014 Feb 28.; PMID: 25829567
  2. Ankit Goyal,corresponding author Vivek Sharma, Neelam Upadhyay, Sandeep Gill, Manvesh Sihag: Flax and flaxseed oil: an ancient medicine & modern functional food; J Food Sci Technol. 2014 Sep; 51(9): 1633–1653.; Published online 2014 Jan 10. doi: 10.1007/s13197-013-1247-9; PMCID: PMC4152533
  3. William E Connor: Importance of n?3 fatty acids in health and disease; Am J Clin Nutr January 2000; vol. 71 no. 1 171S-175S
  4. Edel AL, Patenaude AF, Richard MN, Dibrov E, Austria JA, Aukema HM, Pierce GN, Aliani M.: The effect of flaxseed dose on circulating concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside derived enterolignans in young, healthy adults.; Eur J Nutr. 2015 Mar 26. [Epub ahead of print]
  5. Brenda C Davis, Penny M Kris-Etherton: Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications; Am J Clin Nutr September 2003; vol. 78 no. 3 640S-646S
  6. Sheisa Cyléia SARGI, Beatriz Costa SILVA, Hevelyse Munise Celestino SANTOS, Paula Fernandes MONTANHER, Joana Schuelter BOEING, Oscar Oliveira SANTOS JÚNIOR, Nilson Evelázio SOUZA, Jesuí Vergílio VISENTAINER: Antioxidant capacity and chemical composition in seeds rich in omega-3: chia, flax, and perilla; Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, 33(3): 541-548, July-Sept. 2013
  7. Simopoulos AP: The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids.; Biomed Pharmacother. 2002 Oct;56(8):365-79.; PMID: 12442909
  8. Martinchik AN, Baturin AK, Zubtsov VV, Molofeev VIu.: Nutritional value and functional properties of flaxseed.; Vopr Pitan. 2012;81(3):4-10.; PMID: 22888664
  9. The Natural Standard Research Collaboration: Flaxseed and flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum)
  10. Aehle E, Müller U, Eklund PC, Willför SM, Sippl W, Dräger B.: Lignans as food constituents with estrogen and antiestrogen activity.; Phytochemistry. 2011 Dec;72(18):2396-405. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2011.08.013. Epub 2011 Sep 1.; PMID: 21889775
  11. Prasad K.: Flaxseed and cardiovascular health.; J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2009 Nov;54(5):369-77. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e3181af04e5.; PMID: 19568181
  12. Webb AL, McCullough ML.: Dietary lignans: potential role in cancer prevention.; Nutr Cancer. 2005;51(2):117-31.; PMID: 15860433
  13. Lowcock EC, Cotterchio M, Boucher BA.: Consumption of flaxseed, a rich source of lignans, is associated with reduced breast cancer risk.; Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Apr;24(4):813-6. doi: 10.1007/s10552-013-0155-7. Epub 2013 Jan 25.; PMID: 23354422
  14. Flower G, Fritz H, Balneaves LG, Verma S, Skidmore B, Fernandes R, Kennedy D5, Cooley K, Wong R, Sagar S, Fergusson D, Seely D.: Flax and Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review.; Integr Cancer Ther. 2013 Sep 8;13(3):181-192.; PMID: 24013641
  15. Mason JK, Thompson LU.: Flaxseed and its lignan and oil components: can they play a role in reducing the risk of and improving the treatment of breast cancer?; Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014 Jun;39(6):663-78.; doi: 10.1139/apnm-2013-0420. Epub 2013 Dec 23.; PMID: 24869971
  16. Demark-Wahnefried W, Polascik TJ, George SL, Switzer BR, Madden JF, Ruffin MT 4th, Snyder DC, Owzar K, Hars V, Albala DM, Walther PJ, Robertson CN, Moul JW, Dunn BK, Brenner D, Minasian L, Stella P, Vollmer RT.: Flaxseed supplementation (not dietary fat restriction) reduces prostate cancer proliferation rates in men presurgery.; Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Dec;17(12):3577-87. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0008.; PMID: 19064574
  17. Alhassane Touré, Xu Xueming: Flaxseed Lignans: Source, Biosynthesis, Metabolism, Antioxidant Activity, Bio-Active Components, and Health Benefits; Institute of Food Technologists®; Article first published online: 29 APR 2010; DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2009.00105.x
  18. Wang H, Wang J, Guo X, Brennan CS, Li T, Fu X, Chen G, Liu RH.: Effect of germination on lignan biosynthesis, and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.).; Food Chem. 2016 Aug 15;205:170-7. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.03.001. Epub 2016 Mar 2.; PMID: 27006228
  19. Kristensen M, Savorani F, Christensen S, Engelsen SB, Bügel S, Toubro S, Tetens I, Astrup A.: Flaxseed dietary fibers suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite sensation in young men.; Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Feb;23(2):136-43. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2011.03.004. Epub 2011 Jul 29.; PMID: 21802266
  20. Yari Z, Rahimlou M, Poustchi H, Hekmatdoost A.: Flaxseed Supplementation in Metabolic Syndrome Management: A Pilot Randomized, Open-labeled, Controlled Study.; Phytother Res. 2016 May 6. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5635. [Epub ahead of print]; PMID: 27151322
  21. Pan A, Yu D, Demark-Wahnefried W, Franco OH, Lin X.: Meta-analysis of the effects of flaxseed interventions on blood lipids.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Aug;90(2):288-97. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.27469. Epub 2009 Jun 10.; PMID: 19515737
  22. Patade A, Devareddy L, Lucas EA, Korlagunta K, Daggy BP, Arjmandi BH.: Flaxseed reduces total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in Native American postmenopausal women.; J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2008 Apr;17(3):355-66. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2007.0359.; PMID: 18328014
  23. Edel AL, Rodriguez-Leyva D, Maddaford TG, Caligiuri SP, Austria JA, Weighell W, Guzman R, Aliani M, Pierce GN.: Dietary flaxseed independently lowers circulating cholesterol and lowers it beyond the effects of cholesterol-lowering medications alone in patients with peripheral artery disease.; J Nutr. 2015 Apr;145(4):749-57. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.204594. Epub 2015 Feb 18.; PMID: 25694068
  24. Mette Kristensen, Morten G Jensen, Julie Aarestrup, Kristina EN Petersen, Lise Søndergaard, Mette S Mikkelsen, Arne Astrup: Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type; Nutr Metab (Lond). 2012; 9: 8.; Published online 2012 Feb 3.; doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-9-8; PMCID: PMC3307491
  25. Torkan M, Entezari MH, Siavash M.: Effect of flaxseed on blood lipid level in hyperlipidemic patients.; Rev Recent Clin Trials. 2015;10(1):61-7.; PMID: 25612882
  26. Ursoniu S, Sahebkar A, Andrica F, Serban C, Banach M; Lipid and Blood Pressure Meta-analysis Collaboration (LBPMC) Group.: Effects of flaxseed supplements on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trial.; Clin Nutr. 2015 May 29. pii: S0261-5614(15)00144-2. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2015.05.012.; 
  27. Khalesi S, Irwin C, Schubert M.: Flaxseed consumption may reduce blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials.; J Nutr. 2015 Apr;145(4):758-65. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.205302. Epub 2015 Mar 4.; PMID: 25740909
  28. Hutchins AM, Brown BD, Cunnane SC, Domitrovich SG, Adams ER, Bobowiec CE.: Daily flaxseed consumption improves glycemic control in obese men and women with pre-diabetes: a randomized study.; Nutr Res. 2013 May;33(5):367-75.; doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2013.02.012. Epub 2013 Apr 1.; PMID: 23684438
  29. Pruthi S, Thompson SL, Novotny PJ, Barton DL, Kottschade LA, Tan AD, Sloan JA, Loprinzi CL.: Pilot evaluation of flaxseed for the management of hot flashes.; J Soc Integr Oncol. 2007 Summer;5(3):106-12.; PMID: 17761129
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Health Advantages Of A Vegan Diet

  1. Peter Clarys, Tom Deliens, Inge Huybrechts, Peter Deriemaeker, Barbara Vanaelst, Willem De Keyzer, Marcel Hebbelinck, Patrick Mullie: Comparison of Nutritional Quality of the Vegan, Vegetarian, Semi-Vegetarian, Pesco-Vegetarian and Omnivorous Diet; Nutrients. 2014 Mar; 6(3): 1318–1332.; doi: 10.3390/nu6031318
  2. Winston J Craig: Health effects of vegan diets; Am J Clin Nutr May 2009; vol. 89 no. 5 1627S-1633S
  3. Timothy J. Key, Paul N. Appleby, Magdalena S. Rosell: Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets; Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7LF, UK; DOI: 10.1079/PNS2005481
  4. Nadja B. Kristensen, Mia L. Madsen, Tue H. Hansen, Kristine H. Allin, Camilla Hoppe, Sisse Fagt, Mia S. Lausten, Rikke J. Gøbel, Henrik Vestergaard, Torben Hansen, and Oluf Pedersen: Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans; Nutr J. 2015; 14: 115.; Published online 2015 Oct 30. doi: 10.1186/s12937-015-0103-3; PMCID: PMC4628270
  5. Dewell A, Weidner G, Sumner MD, Chi CS, Ornish D.: A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.; J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Feb;108(2):347-56.; doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2007.10.044.
  6. Spencer EA, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Key TJ.: Diet and body mass index in 38000 EPIC-Oxford meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.; Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Jun; 27(6):728-34.
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  10. Maruyama K, Oshima T, Ohyama K.: Exposure to exogenous estrogen through intake of commercial milk produced from pregnant cows.; Pediatr Int. 2010 Feb; 52(1):33-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-200X.2009.02890.x. Epub 2009 May 22.
  11. John D. Grant, MD FRCPC: Food for thought … and health Making a case for plant-based nutrition; Can Fam Physician. 2012 Sep; 58(9): 917–919.; PMCID: PMC3440258
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  21. Chen YM, Ho SC, Woo JL.: Greater fruit and vegetable intake is associated with increased bone mass among postmenopausal Chinese women.; Br J Nutr. 2006 Oct;96(4):745-51.; PMID: 17010235
  22. Philip J Tuso, MD, Mohamed H Ismail, MD, Carole Bartolotto, MA, RD: Nutritional Update for Physicians: Plant-Based Diets; Perm J. 2013 Spring; 17(2): 61–66.; doi: 10.7812/TPP/12-085; PMCID: PMC3662288
  23. PK Newby, Katherine L Tucker, and Alicja Wolk: Risk of overweight and obesity among semivegetarian, lactovegetarian, and vegan women; Am J Clin Nutr June 2005 vol. 81 no. 6 1267-1274
  24. Serena Tonstad, MD, PHD, Terry Butler, DRPH, Ru Yan, MSC and Gary E. Fraser, MD, PHD: Type of Vegetarian Diet, Body Weight, and Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes; Published online before print April 7, 2009, doi: 10.2337/dc08-1886; Diabetes Care May 2009 vol. 32 no. 5 791-796
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  26. Fenglei Wang, MS; Jusheng Zheng, PhD; Bo Yang, MPH; Jiajing Jiang, MS; Yuanqing Fu, PhD; Duo Li, PhD: Effects of Vegetarian Diets on Blood Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta?Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials; Coronary Heart Disease; J Am Heart Assoc. 2015; 4: e002408 originally published October 27, 2015 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.115.002408
  27. Luc Djoussé, Donna K Arnett, Hilary Coon, Michael A Province, Lynn L Moore, and R Curtis Ellison: Fruit and vegetable consumption and LDL cholesterol: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study; Am J Clin Nutr February 2004; vol. 79 no. 2 213-217
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  29. Maximino Alfredo Mejia, Albert Sanchez, Joanie Sanchez, Eric Runte: A Vegan Diet Rich in Fats of Plant Origin May Reverse Coronary Artery Disease; April 2016; The FASEB Journal vol. 30 no. 1 Supplement 904.11
  30. Lap Tai Le and Joan Sabaté: Beyond Meatless, the Health Effects of Vegan Diets: Findings from the Adventist Cohorts; Nutrients. 2014 Jun; 6(6): 2131–2147.; Published online 2014 May 27.; doi: 10.3390/nu6062131; PMCID: PMC4073139
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  32. Andrea Bellavia, Susanna C Larsson, Matteo Bottai, Alicja Wolk, and Nicola Orsini: Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause mortality: a dose-response analysis; Am J Clin Nutr August 2013; doi: 10.3945/?ajcn.112.056119
  33. Jin ZY, Wu M, Han RQ, Zhang XF, Wang XS, Liu AM, Zhou JY, Lu QY, Zhang ZF, Zhao JK.: Raw garlic consumption as a protective factor for lung cancer, a population-based case-control study in a Chinese population.; Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013 Jul; 6(7):711-8.; doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-13-0015. Epub 2013 May 8.
  34. Claire T McEvoy, Norman Temple, Jayne V Woodside: Vegetarian diets, low-meat diets and health: a review; Public Health Nutrition: 15(12), 2287–2294; doi:10.1017/S1368980012000936
  35. Park SY, Murphy SP, Wilkens LR, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN: Legume and isoflavone intake and prostate cancer risk: The Multiethnic Cohort Study.; Int J Cancer. 2008 Aug 15;123(4):927-32.; doi: 10.1002/ijc.23594.
  36. Tantamango-Bartley Y, Knutsen SF, Knutsen R, Jacobsen BK, Fan J, Beeson WL, Sabate J, Hadley D, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Penniecook J, Herring P, Butler T, Bennett H, Fraser G.: Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?; Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Nov 11. pii: ajcn106450. [Epub ahead of print]; PMID: 26561618
  37. Tantamango-Bartley Y, Knutsen SF, Knutsen R, Jacobsen BK, Fan J, Beeson WL, Sabate J, Hadley D, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Penniecook J, Herring P, Butler T, Bennett H, Fraser G.: Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?; Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Nov 11. pii: ajcn106450. [Epub ahead of print]; PMID: 26561618
  38. McCarty MF: Vegan proteins may reduce risk of cancer, obesity, and cardiovascular disease by promoting increased glucagon activity.; Med Hypotheses. 1999 Dec;53(6):459-85.
  39. Bingham SA, Day NE, Luben R, Ferrari P, Slimani N, Norat T, Clavel-Chapelon F, Kesse E, Nieters A, Boeing H, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Martinez C, Dorronsoro M, Gonzalez CA, Key TJ, Trichopoulou A, Naska A, Vineis P, Tumino R, Krogh V, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Peeters PH, Berglund G, Hallmans G, Lund E, Skeie G, Kaaks R, Riboli E; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.: Dietary fibre in food and protection against colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): an observational study.; Lancet. 2003 May 3;361(9368):1496-501.; PMID: 12737858
  40. Michael J. Orlich, MD, PhD, Pramil N. Singh, DrPH, Joan Sabaté, MD, DrPH, Jing Fan, MS, Lars Sveen, Hannelore Bennett, MS, Synnove F. Knutsen, MD, PhD, W. Lawrence Beeson, DrPH, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, DrPH, MS, Terry L. Butler, DrPH, R. Patti Herring, PhD, and Gary E. Fraser, PhD, MD: Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancers; JAMA Intern Med. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 May 5.; Published in final edited form as: JAMA Intern Med. 2015 May 1; 175(5): 767–776.; doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.59; PMCID: PMC4420687; NIHMSID: NIHMS670872
  41. Carrie Printz: Vegetarian diet associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer; Cancer: Volume 121, Issue 16, page 2667, August 15, 2015Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015; DOI: 10.1002/cncr.29582
  42. Rick J. Jansen, Dennis P. Robinson, Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon, William R. Bamlet, Mariza de Andrade, Ann L. Oberg, Kari G. Rabe, Kristin E. Anderson, Janet E. Olson, Rashmi Sinha, Gloria M. Petersen: Nutrients from Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Reduce the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer;J Gastrointest Cancer. 2013 Jun; 44(2): 152–161.; doi: 10.1007/s12029-012-9441-y; PMCID: PMC3694591; NIHMSID: NIHMS479653
  43. Tantamango-Bartley Y, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Fraser G.: Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population.; Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Feb;22(2):286-94. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-1060. Epub 2012 Nov 20.; PMID: 23169929
  44. Lap Tai Le and Joan Sabaté: Beyond Meatless, the Health Effects of Vegan Diets: Findings from the Adventist Cohorts; Nutrients. 2014 Jun; 6(6): 2131–2147.; doi: 10.3390/nu6062131; PMCID: PMC4073139
  45. Dinu M, Abbate R, Gensini GF, Casini A, Sofi F.: Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: a systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies.; Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Feb 6:0. [Epub ahead of print]; PMID: 26853923
  46. Appleby PN, Davey GK, Key TJ.: Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans in EPIC-Oxford.; Public Health Nutr. 2002 Oct;5(5):645-54.
  47. David J. A. Jenkins, MD, PhD; Cyril W. C. Kendall, PhD; Livia S. A. Augustin, PhD; Sandra Mitchell, RD; Sandhya Sahye-Pudaruth, RD; Sonia Blanco Mejia, MD; Laura Chiavaroli, MSc; Arash Mirrahimi, MSc; Christopher Ireland, BSc; Balachandran Bashyam, PhD; Edward Vidgen, BSc; Russell J. de Souza, ScD; John L. Sievenpiper, MD; Judy Coveney, RD; Lawrence A. Leiter, MD; Robert G. Josse, MD: Effect of Legumes as Part of a Low Glycemic Index Diet on Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes MellitusA Randomized Controlled Trial; Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(21):1653-1660. doi:10.1001/2013.jamainternmed.70.
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  49. Neal D. Barnard, Ashley I. Bush, Antonia Ceccarelli, James Cooper, Celeste A. de Jager, Kirk I. Erickson, Gary Fraser, Shelli Kesler, Susan M. Levin, Brendan Lucey, Martha Clare Morris, Rosanna Squitti: Dietary and lifestyle guidelines for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease; Department of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town Observatory; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.03.033
  50. Nadja B. Kristensen, Mia L. Madsen, Tue H. Hansen, Kristine H. Allin, Camilla Hoppe, Sisse Fagt, Mia S. Lausten, Rikke J. Gøbel, Henrik Vestergaard, Torben Hansen, Oluf Pedersen: Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans; Nutr J. 2015; 14: 115.; Published online 2015 Oct 30. doi: 10.1186/s12937-015-0103-3; PMCID: PMC4628270
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Is the vegan diet a malnutrition?

  1. Peter Clarys, Tom Deliens, Inge Huybrechts, Peter Deriemaeker, Barbara Vanaelst, Willem De Keyzer, Marcel Hebbelinck, Patrick Mullie: Comparison of Nutritional Quality of the Vegan, Vegetarian, Semi-Vegetarian, Pesco-Vegetarian and Omnivorous Diet; Nutrients. 2014 Mar; 6(3): 1318–1332.; Published online 2014 Mar 24.; doi: 10.3390/nu6031318; PMCID: PMC3967195
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  4. Herrmann W, Schorr H, Obeid R, Geisel J.: Vitamin B-12 status, particularly holotranscobalamin II and methylmalonic acid concentrations, and hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jul;78(1):131-6.
  5. Winston J Craig: Health effects of vegan diets; Am J Clin Nutr May 2009; First published March 11, 2009, doi: 10.3945/?ajcn.2009.26736N; vol. 89 no. 5 1627S-1633S
  6. Nadja B. Kristensen, Mia L. Madsen, Tue H. Hansen, Kristine H. Allin, Camilla Hoppe, Sisse Fagt, Mia S. Lausten, Rikke J. Gøbel, Henrik Vestergaard, Torben Hansen, Oluf Pedersen: Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans; Nutr J. 2015; 14: 115.; Published online 2015 Oct 30. doi: 10.1186/s12937-015-0103-3; PMCID: PMC4628270
  7. Christel L Larsson and Gunnar K Johansson: Dietary intake and nutritional status of young vegans and omnivores in Sweden; Am J Clin Nutr July 2002; vol. 76 no. 1 100-106
  8. Majchrzak D, Singer I, Männer M, Rust P, Genser D, Wagner KH, Elmadfa I.: B-vitamin status and concentrations of homocysteine in Austrian omnivores, vegetarians and vegans.; Ann Nutr Metab. 2006;50(6):485-91. Epub 2006 Sep 19.
  9. EUFIC: Vitamine: was sie bewirken und wo man sie findet; MINI-LEITFADEN 06/2006
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  11. Dunn-Emke SR, Weidner G, Pettengill EB, Marlin RO, Chi C, Ornish DM.: Nutrient adequacy of a very low-fat vegan diet.; J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Sep;105(9):1442-6.
  12. Peter Clarys, Tom Deliens, Inge Huybrechts, Peter Deriemaeker, Barbara Vanaelst, Willem De Keyzer, Marcel Hebbelinck, Patrick Mullie: Comparison of Nutritional Quality of the Vegan, Vegetarian, Semi-Vegetarian, Pesco-Vegetarian and Omnivorous Diet; Nutrients. 2014 Mar; 6(3): 1318–1332.; Published online 2014 Mar 24.; doi: 10.3390/nu6031318; PMCID: PMC3967195
  13. Jakub G. Sobiecki, Paul N. Appleby, Kathryn E. Bradbury, Timothy J. Key:High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2015.12.016
  14. Nadja B. Kristensen, Mia L. Madsen, Tue H. Hansen, Kristine H. Allin, Camilla Hoppe, Sisse Fagt, Mia S. Lausten, Rikke J. Gøbel, Henrik Vestergaard, Torben Hansen, and Oluf Pedersen: Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans; Nutr J. 2015; 14: 115.; Published online 2015 Oct 30. doi: 10.1186/s12937-015-0103-3; PMCID: PMC4628270
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  17. Gwen Dewar, Ph.D.: Boosting iron absorption
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  21. P Appleby, A Roddam, N Allen, T Key: Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford; European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2007) 61, 1400–1406; doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602659; published online 7 February 2007
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  26. Davis BC, Kris-Etherton PM.: Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3 Suppl):640S-646S.; PMID: 12936959
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Macronutrients Definition And Nutrient Ratio

  1. Andrea C Buchholz and Dale A Schoeller: Is a calorie a calorie?; Am J Clin Nutr May 2004; vol. 79 no. 5 899S-906S
  2. The Pennsylvania State University: Macronutrients
  3. McKinley Health Center: Macronutrients: the Importance of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Fat

Micronutrients - Nutrients With Elementary Importance

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  6. Ibrahim SS, Habiba RA, Shatta AA, Embaby HE.: Effect of soaking, germination, cooking and fermentation on antinutritional factors in cowpeas.; Nahrung. 2002 Apr;46(2):92-5.; PMID: 12017999
  7. Schüpbach R, Wegmüller R, Berguerand C, Bui M, Herter-Aeberli I.: Micronutrient status and intake in omnivores, vegetarians and vegans in Switzerland.; Eur J Nutr. 2015 Oct 26.; PMID: 26502280

Protein Deficiency

  1. Health Grades Inc.: Symptoms of Protein deficiency, accessed on 10.11.2015
  2. Zivanović Z, Barlinn K, Balucani C, Palazzo P, Alexandrov AV.: Headache and aphasia in a young woman with protein S deficiency and nephrotic syndrome.; Acta Clin Croat. 2011 Dec;50(4):619-21.; PMID: 22649897
  3. Guoyao Wu: Dietary protein intake and human health; Food Funct., 2016, 7, 1251-1265; DOI: 10.1039/C5FO01530H (Review Article); First published on the web 11th January 2016
  4. Jane E Kerstetter, Kimberly O O’Brien, Karl L Insogna: Dietary protein, calcium metabolism, and skeletal homeostasis revisited; American Society for Clinical Nutrition; Am J Clin Nutr September 2003; vol. 78 no. 3 584S-592S
  5. Malcolm Watford, Guoyao Wu: Protein; doi: 10.3945/an.110.000091; Adv Nutr January 2011 Adv Nutr vol. 2: 62-63, 2011
  6. Guoyao Wu: Dietary protein intake and human health; Food Funct., 2016, 7, 1251-1265; DOI: 10.1039/C5FO01530H (Review Article); First published on the web 11th January 2016

Protein Requirements Including For Muscle Gain

  1. Fulgoni VL 3rd.: Current protein intake in America: analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May;87(5):1554S-1557S.; PMID: 18469286
  2. Institue of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board: DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids
  3. Elango R, Humayun MA, Ball RO, Pencharz PB.: Evidence that protein requirements have been significantly underestimated.; Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Jan;13(1):52-7. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e328332f9b7.; PMID: 19841581
  4. Guoyao Wu: Dietary protein intake and human health; Food Funct., 2016, 7, 1251-1265; DOI: 10.1039/C5FO01530H
  5. Kate A Marsh, Elizabeth A Munn and Surinder K Baines: Protein and vegetarian diets; Med J Aust 2013; 199 (4 Suppl): S7-S10.; doi: 10.5694/mja11.11492
  6. Christoph Szedlak MSC; Anna Robins PhD: Protein Requirements for Strength Training; Strength & Conditioning Journal; October 2012 - Volume 34 - Issue 5 - p 85–91; doi: 10.1519/SSC.0b013e31826dc3c4
  7. Wu G.: Dietary protein intake and human health.; Food Funct. 2016 Mar 16;7(3):1251-65. doi: 10.1039/c5fo01530h.; First published online 11 Jan 2016
  8. Felicia D. Stoler, DCN, MS, RD, FACSM: Sports Nutrition Unplugged
  9. Bill Campbell, Richard B Kreider, Tim Ziegenfuss, Paul La Bounty, Mike Roberts, Darren Burke, Jamie Landis, Hector Lopez, Jose Antonio: International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: protein and exercise; J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007; 4: 8.; Published online 2007 Sep 26. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-4-8; PMCID: PMC2117006
  10. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach: Protein
  11. Bill Campbell, Richard B Kreider, Tim Ziegenfuss, Paul La Bounty, Mike Roberts, Darren Burke, Jamie Landis, Hector Lopez, Jose Antonio: International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: protein and exercise; J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007; 4: 8.; Published online 2007 Sep 26. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-4-8; PMCID: PMC2117006
  12. Lemon PW: Protein requirements of soccer.; J Sports Sci. 1994 Summer;12 Spec No:S17-22.; PMID: 8072059
  13. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach: Carbohydrate
  14. Madonna M. Mamerow, Joni A. Mettler, Kirk L. English, Shanon L. Casperson, Emily Arentson-Lantz, Melinda Sheffield-Moore, Donald K. Layman, Douglas Paddon-Jones: Dietary Protein Distribution Positively Influences 24-h Muscle Protein Synthesis in Healthy Adults; J Nutr. 2014 Jun; 144(6): 876–880. Published online 2014 Jan 29.; doi: 10.3945/jn.113.185280; PMCID: PMC4018950
  15. Douglas Paddon-Jones, Blake B. Rasmussen: Dietary protein recommendations and the prevention of sarcopenia, Protein, amino acid metabolism and therapy; Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009 Jan; 12(1): 86–90.; doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e32831cef8b; PMCID: PMC2760315; NIHMSID: NIHMS111079
  16. Gaffney-Stomberg E, Insogna KL, Rodriguez NR, Kerstetter JE: Increasing dietary protein requirements in elderly people for optimal muscle and bone health.; J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 Jun;57(6):1073-9.; doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2009.02285.x. Epub 2009 Apr 30.; PMID: 19460090

Proteins And Amino Acids - Building Blocks Of The Body

  1. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach: Protein; accessed on 08.10.2015
  2. A.D.A.M., Inc.: Protein in diet, accessed on 08.10.2015
  3. Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, Peter Walter, Dennis Bray, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, James D. Watson: Protein Function ;Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition.
  4. Andrea C Buchholz, Dale A Schoeller: Is a calorie a calorie?; Am J Clin Nutr May 2004; vol. 79 no. 5 899S-906S
  5. Kevin D. Tiptona: Efficacy and consequences of very-high-protein diets for athletes and exercisers; Proceedings of the Nutrition Society / Volume 70 / Issue 02 / Mai 2011, pp 205-214; Symposium 2: Exercise and protein nutrition; The Summer Meeting of the Nutrition Society hosted by the Scottish Section, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh.28 June–1 July 2010, Conference on ‘Nutrition and health: cell to community’; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665111000024 (About DOI), Published online: März 2011
  6. Jacob Wilson and Gabriel J Wilson: Contemporary Issues in Protein Requirements and Consumption for Resistance Trained Athletes; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2006, 3:7-27; doi:10.1186/1550-2783-3-1-7
  7. Institute of medicine of the national academies, Food and Nutrition Board: DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids
  8. David C Nieman: Physical fitness and vegetarian diets: is there a relation?; Am J Clin Nutr September 1999; vol. 70 no. 3 570s-575s
  9. Barzel US, Massey LK.: Excess dietary protein can adversely affect bone.; J Nutr. 1998 Jun;128(6):1051-3.; PMID: 9614169
  10. John D. Grant, MD FRCPC: Food for thought … and health Making a case for plant-based nutrition; Can Fam Physician. 2012 Sep; 58(9): 917–919.; PMCID: PMC3440258
  11. According to scientists , there is a significant inverse relationship between the intake of vegetable protein sources and the blood pressureAccording to scientists , there is a significant inverse relationship between the intake of vegetable protein sources and the blood pressureAccording to scientists , there is a significant inverse relationship between the intake of vegetable protein sources and the blood pressureAccording to scientists , there is a significant inverse relationship between the intake of vegetable protein sources and the blood pressureAccording to scientists , there is a significant inverse relationship between the intake of vegetable protein sources and the blood pressureAccording to scientists , there is a significant inverse relationship between the intake of vegetable protein sources and the blood pressureElliott P, Stamler J, Dyer AR, Appel L, Dennis B, Kesteloot H, Ueshima H, Okayama A, Chan Q, Garside DB, Zhou B.: Association between protein intake and blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study.; Arch Intern Med. 2006 Jan 9;166(1):79-87.; PMID: 16401814
  12. Wieke Altorf - van der Kuil, Mariëlle F. Engberink, Moniek M. Vedder, Jolanda M. A. Boer, W. M. Monique Verschuren, Johanna M. Geleijnse: Sources of Dietary Protein in Relation to Blood Pressure in a General Dutch Population; PLoS One. 2012; 7(2): e30582.; Published online 2012 Feb 7. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030582; PMCID: PMC3274530
  13. Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Carey VJ, Obarzanek E, Swain JF, Miller ER 3rd, Conlin PR, Erlinger TP, Rosner BA, Laranjo NM, Charleston J, McCarron P, Bishop LM; OmniHeart Collaborative Research Group.: Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial.; JAMA. 2005 Nov 16;294(19):2455-64.; PMID: 16287956
  14. Reed Mangels, PhD, RD: Protein in the Vegan Diet; From Simply Vegan 5th Edition

Varied And Balanced Diet

  1. M. Segasothy, P.A. Phillips: Vegetarian diet: panacea for modern lifestyle diseases?; Association of Physicians 1999; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/92.9.531 531-544 First published online: 1 September 1999
  2. L Baroni, L Cenci, M Tettamanti, M Berati: Evaluating the environmental impact of various dietary patterns combined with different food production systems; European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2007) 61, 279–286.; doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602522; published online 11 October 2006

Veganism Definition

  1. Claus Leitzmann: Vegetarian nutrition: past, present, future; Am J Clin Nutr July 2014; doi: 10.3945/?ajcn.113.071365